Natural Resources

 Land Resources  

Jilin Province is located in the world famous black soil belt. The organic matter content in its topsoil is 3% to 6% higher and all the way up to more than 15%. The province's arable land area is 7.03 million hectares, accounting for 30% of the province's total land area, ranking 9th in China. The black soil area is about 1.1 million hectares, and the cultivated black soil area is about 832,000 hectares, accounting for 15.6% of the province's arable land. The grain yields from the black soil areas account for more than half of the province’s total grain output. Compared with the national situations, Jilin Province’s total land area accounts for about 2% of the country’s total land area; Jilin Province’s arable land accounts for about 4.4 % of the arable land of the country; the basic farmland of Jilin Province accounts for about 4.4% of the national total basic farmland. The basic farmland protection rate is 86.9%, consistent with the major grain-producing provinces. Jilin Province’s per capita arable land is 3.05 mu, which is three times as much as the national average and roughly the world average.
Forest Resources
Being one of the major forestry provinces, Jilin is rich in forest resources. Jilin Province’s total area of forest use land is 9.299 million hectares, and the forest area is 8.288 million hectares. The total reserves of stumpage are 956.13 million cubic meters, and the forest coverage rate is 43.8%. There are 57 provincial and above forest parks, and their area is 2.2398 million hectares, including 35 national forest parks and 22 provincial forest parks. The Changbai Mountain area is known as the “Changbai Forest Sea”, it is one of the six major forest areas in China. It has a great variety of tree species, including pine, oak, ash, yellow pineapple, etc. The “Changbai Pine” is a unique and rare species in the Changbai Mountain. It is known as the “Beauty Pine” for its straight trunk, bright bark bright and charming shape. It is listed in the “Mainly Protected Wild Plants in China” issued by the State Council in 1999.
Mineral Resources
      The Changbai Mountain area in east Jilin Province constitutes the core area of the Liaodong – Jinan metallogenic belt. It is one of the 16 major metallogenic belts in China. It contains rich mineral resources, where 158 kinds of minerals have been discovered, accounting for 66.6% of the 237 kinds of minerals discovered in China. The reserves of 115 kinds of minerals (including sub-minerals) have been proven. Oil shale, molybdenum, nickel, magnesium, wollastonite, diatomite, bentonite, scoria, ceramic shale, mineral water, etc. are the advantageous mineral resources in Jilin Province. The east of the Changbai Mountain area is the region with concentrate mineral water resources whose reserves are extremely rich. The region is known as one of the three world-famous mineral water-rich areas, ranking at the same level as Alps and the North Caucasus. The Songliao basin is the middle and the west of Jilin Province is identified as one of the 11 major oil and gas rich basins in China.
Grassland Resources
     Jilin Province is one of the eight major pastoral areas in China. The province's total grassland area is 10.37 million mu, accounting for 3.6% of the province's total land area. The usable areas account for over 70% of the province's grassland area. They are mainly found in the hilly areas in the eastern mountains and in the grasslands in the west of the province. The grasslands in the east are scattered, but their hay yields are high, while the grasslands in the west are vast and concentrated with good grass quality. It is particularly famous at home and abroad for its rich Chinese wild rye, so it is an important area suitable for the development of animal husbandry. In recent years, Jilin Province has been engaged in eco-grassland protection and building in the 13 counties (cities, districts) in its west to strengthen grassland ecological protection and reduce pressures of the grassland carrying capacity, so the grassland vegetation has been significantly restored.
Water Resources
Located in the upper reaches and middle reaches of main rivers in northeast China, Jilin is a province of headstreams of rivers. Known as the “Origin of Three Rivers”, the volcano cone of the Changbai Mountain Tianchi is the origin of the Songhua River, the Yalu River and the Tumen River. The province's water surfaces of rivers and lakes are 265,500 hectares. In the province, there are 1,648 rivers each of which has a drainage area of over 20 square kilometers. They belong to the five water systems of the Songhua River, the Liaohe River, the Yalu River, the Tumen River and the Suifen River. In the province, there are 1,397 lakes and ponds each of which has a water surface area of 100 mu (0.067 square meter). They are mainly three kinds of lakes, crater lakes, river lakes and inland lakes. The river network in the eastern mountains is dense with large surface runoffs. The eastern mountains have little ground water while the west of the province has rich ground water resources. 98% of the water resources are found in the eastern mountain areas.
Wildlife Resources
Jilin Province has well-developed and diverse groups biotic populations. 446 kinds of terrestrial wild animals have been identified, including 15 species of amphibians, 16 species of reptiles, 335 species of birds and 80 species of mammals, accounting for about 17.69% of the total species of wild animals and 30.36% of the total species of birds found in China. A number of national grade-1 protected wild animals, including northeast tigers, leopard, sika deer, oriental storks, red-crowned crane, great bustard, etc., which hold very important positions in the rescue and protection of international endangered species. The number of northeast tigers as national grade-1 protected wild animals is merely about 450 in the world, and 11-13 of them are living in the Changbai Mountain forest areas of Jilin Province. There are only about 4,000 white cranes in the world, and about 3,800 of them are in Jilin Province. Hunchun of Jilin Province is named by the China Wildlife Conservation Association “Hometown of Chinese Northeast Tiger”.
In Jilin Province, there are 3,890 species of wild plants, including about 270 species of lichens, about 350 species of mosses, about 900 species of fungi, about 140 species of ferns, about 30 species of gymnosperms, and about 2,200 species of angiosperms. Jilin Province is the main producing areas of the northeast China mountain treasures, containing mainly such wild edible plants as fern, osmunda, spiky tender bud, mushroom, black fungus, hedgehog hydnum, mountain grape, pecans, etc. The eastern Changbai Mountain is rich in wild medicinal plant resources, known as one of the three natural medicine treasure houses in China.
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