Ecological Environment

Eco-region Distribution 

The ecological environment of Jilin Province represents special diversity and relative integrity. This environment also has good recoverability and high degree of protection. From the perspective of distribution of ecological regions, Jilin Province naturally consists of the primeval forest ecological garden of Changbai Mountain from east to west, Songliao plain ecological garden in the center and prairie wetland in the west.

On the east is Changbai Mountain region with flourish forest and intact forest ecosystem, abundant organism species, rich rain fall. Here becomes an important ecological barrier for Northeast Asian or Jilin Province.

The eastern and central low mountains and hills covered with dense natural secondary forests and artificial forest. Here is the important section of Songhua River basin and also the upstream of the “Three Lakes” (Baishan Lake, Hongshi Lake, and Songhua Lake) and the Dongliao River. Therefore, it abounds with water and mineral resources.

The central Songliao Plain is rich in resources and vast expanse of fertile land. With the well-established agricultural protection forest system, strong environment undertaking capacity, it has the preferential condition to develop advanced agriculture product. With the reputation of “golden corn belt” and “hometown of black soil” it becomes China’s important commodity grain base.

The western grassland wetland is a stretch zone of Inner Mongolia. Characterized by vast stretch of grassland, densely scattered ponds, large area of wetland and ample underground water and transit water. It is the transition zone of ecological system from humid forest grassland to semi-arid prairie and desert. It is also the important passage for migrating birds and hometown of the red-crowned crane. It is a low lying district with good light and heat, which gets the great potential to develop animal husbandry.

Construction of Nature Reserves 

Jilin province has 48 nature reserves with various kinds of levels, including 20 national level, 21 provincial level, 7 city and county level, with a total area of 2.49 million hectares, accounting for 13.31% of the province's land area. Since 1960 the establishment of Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve began, Nature Reserve of Jilin province has experienced from scratch, from small to large, and from single to comprehensive development. According to the general characteristics of ecological condition and ecological environment in our province, it basically formed the nature reserve system possessing reasonable echelon structure and complete patterns. There are nine forest ecosystem types of Nature Reserve, 19 types of inland wetlands and aquatic ecosystem nature reserve, a steppe and meadow types nature reserves, four types of geological heritage nature reserve, 5 types of wild animal natural protection zone and 10 types of wild plant nature reserve. The Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve is famous for the integrity of the forest ecosystem and biodiversity and germplasm gene pool, and well-known by Tianchi, waterfalls, hot springs, the Grand Canyon, Qifeng, floral and vertical vegetation zones. Beginning in 2013, Changbai Mountain International Ecological Forum was held on every year. Many domestic and foreign research institutions, academic experts, scholars came to Changbai Mountain to carry out academic exchanges. Changbai Mountain has become an important window for the well-known tourist resort, foreign scientific, technological and cultural exchanges; Xianghai National Nature Reserve designated by the State Council  included in the "List of International Important Wetlands" in 1992. In the same year by the World Wildlife Fund for the evaluation with "international significance of A-class nature reserve". In 1993, the Chinese and biosphere Commission approved it into the "Biosphere Reserve Network", it played an important role in the field of international wetland; Hunchun National Siberian Tiger Nature Reserve is China's first nature reserve mainly protect international endangered species, national important protected wildlife, Siberian Tiger, leopard, and its habitat, which is a region that has the most number of wild Siberian tiger, Leopard in China.

The nature reserve of our province protect biodiversity, maintain regional ecological balance, strengthen the ecological security, protect natural and historical heritage, and implement the strategy of sustainable development which has played an important role in function

Ecological Construction 

The ecological environment of Jilin Province has preferable basic conditions. In 1999, the state approved Jilin Province to be a pilot province for ecological construction. In 2001, the province implemented the "Outline for the Overall Planning of Ecological Construction in Jilin Province". In 2006, Jilin Province established Changbai Mountain Protection and Development Management Committee to carry out centralized management and protection of Changbai Mountain development. The implementation of ecological province construction, Jilin province carry out a series of ecological protection and construction projects, the construction of ecological civilization has achieved remarkable results.

On the implementation of mandatory protection for the eastern Changbai Mountain resources, it focus on the protection of biodiversity and unique geological landscapes, restoration of forest ecosystem, and development of forest carbon sinks that play the whole function of the ecosystem in Changbai Mountain; as well as focus on enhance the natural protection area construction and biosecurity management, protect wild animals and plants, rare and endangered species and wetland resources. There are some initiative in protecting water resources in the eastern and central part of China. The implementation of Baishan, Jingyu mineral water, water resources protection project of Siping Erlong Lake reservoir; also the implementation of water pollution control in the Songhua River Basin and the East Liao River Basin, Small Watershed Governance, and the "three lakes" protection project of Songhua River. To carry out the protection of the black soil resources in the central region, develop the comprehensive key management project in the black soil area. Construction of high standard farmland and promote applications of organic fertilizers to carry out the protection of the black soil resources in 19 counties of central region.  On the implementation of emergency rescue in the ecological fragile zone of west region, in the 13 counties of the west region, the implementation focus on the control project of saline and protection and construction projects of alkaline land, such as seaward,  Boluo Lake, and Chagan Lake. Also, the government formulates the “Wetland Protection Plan in Jilin Province”, thus the area of wetland, controlling grassland and soil erosion in the whole province have been effectively restored and increased, the west of wetland reappeared in the beautiful scene filled with green trees and singing birds.

Through such projects as the 10-year greening and beautifying Jilin landscape, natural forests protection, farmland protection forests, returning grain plots to forestry, the northwest-north-northeast China networks of shelterbelts, desertification control, etc., the forest area of Jilin Province increased from 8.176 ha at the end of the “11th five-year plan” to 8.281 ha now, and the forest coverage rate from 43.2% to 43.8% respectively. There have been marked improvements of forest vegetation, forest structure and biodiversity.

Jilin Province has created 11 eco-townships at the national level, and 30 eco-townships and 94 eco-villages at the provincial level. Tonghua County became the 1st provincial-level eco-county in Jilin Province.

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