History and humanity

 Historical Evolution of Jilin 

The formation of Jilin area has been through a long historical evolution course. From the Pre-Qin Period in ancient China, Jilin area has been within the jurisdiction of the administrative region of central government in the past successive dynasties. The province and county emerged in Han Dynasty, and the Bohai Sea in Tan Dynasty as well as the Liao Dynasty, the Jin Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty all set prefecture, Zhou and county. Besides, army and government office as well as Wei-Suo (a kind of military institution) were established in the Ming Dynasty. In 1653.A.D. (the tenth year of Shunzhi), the Qing Dynasty established Ninguta (Manchu) high-ranking official, marking the start of the organization system of Jilin Province. The organization system was the embryonic form of the Provincial organization system of Jilin Province, which stands out the landmarks in the development history of Jilin. In 1662 A. D. (in the first year of Kangxi Period), the name of this high-ranking official has been changed as Ninguta General. In 1673 A.D. ((in the twelfth year of Kangxi Period), Jilin City was established in Chuanchang (namely the Jilin City right now), it was called “Jilin Wula” at that time. (It means “along the river” in Manchu language). Thus the name of Jilin began to be used by people. In 1676 A.D., Ninguta General moved to Jilin City. In 1757 A.D., the name of Ninguta General was changed as Jilin General. Since then, the meaning of the name “Jilin” has been expanded as the name of an administrative district. In 1907 A.D. (In the thirty-third  year of Guangxu Period in the Qing Dynasty), the Emperor established formal organization system in Jilin, thus it was called Jilin Province since then.  
 
In the early period of the Qing Dynasty, Jilin has long been in the situation of isolation, thus making its society and economy develop very slowly. While in the middle and late period of the Qing Dynasty, its economy started to develop. In the early 20th century, the Northeast part of China became the heated place that the Russia and Japanese imperialism expanded their colonial expansion. Jilin area constantly raised the movements of anti-imperialism and patriotism that were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and the May 30th Movement. Since then, national industry and commerce began to develop, and modern-like cities also appeared in succession. After the September 18th Incident occurred in 1931, Jilin became the colony of Japan.
 
Manchuria state
 
In 1931, Japanese imperialism brazenly waged September 18th Incident (Manchurian Incident or Mukden Incident), invading and occupying Northeast China. In March 1932, they established Puppet regime in Manchuria, in which Pu Yi was in power and Datong was the reign title, changing the name of Changchun into “Xinjing” and making it as the “capital” of Manchuria state. In 1934, Japan changed the “Manchukuo” into “Manchuria Empire”, “governance” into “emperor” and “Datong” into “Kangde”. On August 15th, 1945, Japan announced that they agreed to an unconditional surrender and on August 18th of the same year, Pu Yi announced to abdicate in Tonghua, which meant the extinction of Manchuria state.
 
The liberation of Jilin
 
During the period of war of liberation in northeast, the Northeast Democratic Allied Army (then it was called the Northeast People’s Liberation Army) led by Communist party waged some world-shaking wars on the ground of Jilin, such as “Fighting for Siping for Four Times”, “Protecting Linjiang for Four Times”, “Going to Jiangnan for Three Times” and so on, becoming the crux which reversed the war situation of northeast. In 1948, the Liaoxi-Shenyang Campaign started and the Northeast People’s Liberation Army besieged Changchun, so the army of Kuomintang, which defended Changchun, surrendered to Liberation Army under such a strong political offensive and military pressure. Then, all areas in Jilin became emancipated.
 
In the early of the founding of People’s Republic of China, Jilin Province only governed 2 cities, 2 prefectures, 1 banner, 22 counties and 1 industrial special administrative region. In 1954, adjustment of administrative division in Northeast began, in which putting 7 counties of original Heilongjiang Province under Jilin Province’s administration, establishing Baicheng special administrative region with Qian’an county of Jilin Province; putting 1 city and 9 counties of original Liaodong Province under Jilin Province’s administration, establishing Tonghua special administrative region and putting Liaoyuan city, Xi’an county and Dongfeng county of original Liaodong Province and Siping city, Shuangliao county and Lishu county of original Liaoxi Province under Jilin Province’s administration. In the same year, the people’s government of Jilin Province moved from Jilin City to Changchun city. In 1969, Nei Monggol Autonomous Region put 1 county and 1 banner of Zhelimu league and Hulunbeier respectively league under Jilin Province’s administration, and in 1979, they belonged to Nei Monggol Autonomous Region again. From then on, the administrative region of Jilin Province remains alive today.
 
Famous People
 
The tough and brave Jilin People have a glorious tradition of the struggle against imperialism and feudalism. Faced with the barbarian invaders of Russia, Japan and other colonialism and imperialism, Jilin people defied brute forces and bravely struggled with the enemies, which fully embodies the persevering fighting spirit of Chinese nation. Especially in the Anti-Japanese War, Jilin people bravely fought against the Japan and killed enemies. From the beginning of occupied time, with the rising of anti-Japanese volunteer armies like Wang Delin, Tang Juwu, Wang Fengge and other heroes, to the bloody battles of First Anti-Japanese United Army, which leaded by Yang Jingyu, Wei Zhengmin and Wang Detai. Jilin People composed numerous powerful and magnificent epics of patriotism with their blood and lives.
 
Yang Jingyu, formerly called Ma Shangde, born in 1905, Queshan, Henan Province, joined the Communist Party of China in June 1927, is the important leader for Queshan’s Peasant Unrest and Liudian’s Autumn Harvest Uprising. In the summer of 1929, he came to the northeast area and engaged in revolutionary activities, going by the pseudonym of “Zhang Guanyi”. In September 1932, Yang Jingyu acted as the agent secretary of the Military Commission of the Manchuria Provincial Committee. In November, he went to Panshi, Hailong and other places to inspect work., and found the Thirty Second Army Guerrillas of South Manchuria of the Chinese Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army. At the beginning of the following year, he was appointed as the political commissar of the South Manchurian Guerrillas, and changed his name as Yang Jingyu. Gathering and fighting with other anti-Japanese forces, he founded the Anti-Japanese Army Joint Staff and the Headquarters of Anti-Japanese Army Joint Staff. The South Manchurian Guerrillas, under his direct leadership, was expanded and reorganized as the First Independent Division of the People’s Revolutionary Army, the First Army and the First Army of the Northeast Anti-Japanese united Army. In June 1936, the First Army of the Northeast Anti-Japanese was set up, Yang Jingyu served as commander and political commissar, the number of members reached to over 6000. In southeast mountain area of Jilin and Liaoning Province, with the cover of forest and “secret camp”, Yang Jingyu destroyed Shao Benliang and Suo Jingqing’s puppet army, smashed several “Great Crusade” of Japanese puppet troops, and gained several battles’ victory in attacking Laoling Railway Tunnel Project, Changgang Ambushes, Chagou Breakout and Mo Huodui Battle. He organized two western expeditions so as to keep a close contract with Party Central Committee. After July 7 Incident of 1937, he actively participated in War of Resistance Against Japan in China. Due to his remarkable achievement, Yang Jingyu was successively appointed as the committee member of Central Execution Committee of Chinese Soviet Republic and the member of preparation committee of the 7th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In July 1938, although he was betrayed by traitor and the First Unit sustained great loss, Yang Jingyu reorganized army into three front armies and continued to fight a battle. On 23th February, 1940, Yang Jingyu who was entirely alone, injured and ate nothing for several days, waged a fierce battle with Japanese puppet army in Sandaowaizi of Baoan village of Jingyu county. He met the attack calmly with pistols in his hands in order to persuade enemies to surrender. Finally, Yang Jingyu was hopelessly outnumbered in a fight, so he was struck by bullets and died a hero’s death at that time when he was thirty-five year old. The enemies dissected his body, finding only bark, gross roots and cotton fiber in his stomach. Aggressors had to admit that Yang Jingyu was a hero.
 
Wei Zhengmin, formerly called Guan Youwei, whose courtesy name was Bozhang, also can be called Wei Minsheng, Wei Chugeng, Li Xinliang, Zhang Da, Feng Kun and Feng Kang and so on. On 3rd February1909, He was born in a peasant family in Wei village of Tunliu county in Shanxi Province. In 1926, he joined revolutionary activities led by Chinese Communist Party against warlord of Yan Xishan and joined the Chinese Communist Party in 1929. On February 1935, Wei Zhengmin was dispatched by CPC’s Manchuria Provincial Committee and was  appointed as secretary of CPC ad hoc Committee in the eastern part of Jilin Province of East Manchuria (Yanbian area). In July, 1936, the East Manchuria and South Manchuria merged into CPC’s South Manchuria Committee in Jinchuanheli (Tonghua area) where Wei Zhengmin was appointed as secretary of a Provincial Party Committee. He was the first secretary of Provincial Party Committee in Jilin Province and successively held some posts of political commissar in the Second Army of Northeast People’s Revolutionary Army, political commissar in the Second Army  of Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army, vice-commander of the First Army of the Northeast Anti-Japanese and director of the General Political Department. On 8th, March, 1941, Wei Zhengmin who got serious disease led seven anti-Japanese soldiers to struggle against the enemies, shot by bullets from enemies when he made a sally,  bravely giving his life for his country because traitors informed against him and the enemies concentrated troops to suddenly encircle anti-Japanese unity of secret camp in Sidaogou of Huadian County.
 
Wang Detai was born in a poor peasant home in Yingkou City, Liaoning Province. In 1931, right after the “September 18th Incident”, he resolutely joined the army to fight against the Japanese invaders. In the autumn of the same year, he took part in the local “Autumn Harvest Battle” and was appointed as the Minister of the Anti-imperialism Alliance in Yanji County. Before long, he joined the Communist Party of China. In 1932, he became a member of the Anti-Japanese Guerrillas of Yanji and was nominated as its lieutenant, the squadron leader and the chief of staff successively. He was the chief founder of the Anti-Japanese Guerrillas of Yanji and one of its leaders. In 1933, he took part in commanding the guerrilla warfare more than 50 times and severely damaged the enemy. Meanwhile, the number of the soldiers in the Anti-Japanese Guerrillas of Yanji increased to 300-plus and they had also opened up the Guerrilla Base Areas in Wuyugou, Shirengou and Sandaogou, etc. In June, 1933, he was elected as the Commissioner of the CPC Special Committee of East Manchuria and appointed as the Military Minister. In March, 1934, he participated in building up the Independent Division of the Second Army of Northeastern People’s Revolutionary Army and became its Commissar. In June of the same year, he was elected as the Commissioner of the Temporary Executive Board of the CPC Special Committee of East Manchuria. Since then, he, along with other leaders of the Special Committee and the Independent Division, started the large-scale guerrilla warfare and built up new guerrilla areas in Yanji, Antu, Wangqing and Dunhua, etc. In the late March, 1935, the Independent Division was reorganized and he became the Divisional Commander. On 30th, May, 1935, the Independent Division of the Second Army of Northeastern People’s Revolutionary Army was augmented into the Second Army of Northeastern People’s Revolutionary Army, so he was elevated to the Army Commander and presided over four regiments with 1200-plus soldiers. In March, 1936, the Second Army of Northeastern People’s Revolutionary Army was reorganized as the Second Army of the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army, and he was succeed as the Divisional Commander and leaded the troops towards Antu and Dunhua. In June, 1936, the First and the Second Army of the Anti-Japanese United Army were combined and reorganized as the First Army of the Anti-Japanese United Army, and he became its Deputy Commander and the Commander of the Second Army. Meanwhile, he was also elected as the Commissioner of the CPC Provincial Committee of South Manchuria. During the war, he was not only resourceful but with good military techniques and can shoot rifles, pistols and machine guns well. He always fought in the war and was plucky and tenacious. In the early November, 1936, they besieged two companies of the puppet troops in Dayangcha, at the juncture area of Linjiang and Fusong, and forced the enemy to surrender. Later, he leaded the First Regiment and the Third Company of the Second Regiment of the Second Army and the First Troop of the Sixth Division of the Anti-Japanese United Army to hold a staff meeting of the two troops in Xiaoyanghe Village at the juncture area of Fusong and Linjiang and discussed about the deployment of the battle. At 7 o’clock in the morning of September 7th, they were suddenly attacked by more than 600 enemies, so he leaded part of the soldiers of the Fourth and the Sixth Division to fight against the enemy. At 3 o’clock in the afternoon, while chasing down fleeing enemies, he was shot and died a martyr’s death.
 
Chen Hanzhang was born in Dunhua County, Jilin Province, in 1913. He became a member of the Communist Party of China in 1933 and was one of the later leaders of the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army. When the “September 18th Incident” happened, the Japanese invaded the three provinces in northeast China. So Chen, who was then just began a career in education, concerned about his country and his people and plunged himself into the anti-Japanese affairs. He always said:” If our country is defeated by the enemy, then our home will be nowhere to be found. As a true man, how can I become a slave of the invaders!” In 1932, he joined Jilin National Salvation Army to fight against the Japanese invaders. During the war, Chen became a member of the Communist Party of China with honors and then the Chief of the General Staff of the National Salvation Army and the right-hand man of Zhou Baozhong, a Communist. In 1934, he took part in establishing the Anti-Japanese Amalgamated Army and then became the Divisional Commander of the Second Division of the Fifth Army and the Commander of the Third Front Army. He leaded the troops to fight against the Japanese invaders in the harsh environment in Jingpohu Region and won the victory. During the frequent military attacks of the Japanese Army, they also politically lure the Anti-Japanese United Army and Chen for surrender, but they failed. In December, 1940, it was freezing cold and the mountains were covered with heavy snow. In a battle, due to the traitors’ betrayal, Chen and his comrades were surrounded by the enemy. The enemy screamed:”Chen, surrender and we will give you a higher position!” When faced with that, Chen answered with “we would rather die than become slaves” and bullets. Finally, Chen sacrificed as the number of the enemy was overwhelming and the ammunition and the food were exhausted. At that time, he was only 27 years old.
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