Geography and Topography

Geo-location 

Jilin province is located in the hinterland of Northeast China as the geographical center of Northeast Asia within the east longitude 121°38′ to 131°19′ and the north latitude 40°50′ to 46°19′. It is 769.62 kilometers long from east to west and 606.57 kilometers wide from north to south. It borders Liaoning in the south, Inner Mongolia in the west, Heilongjiang in the north. It borders Russia to the east, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea along the Tumen River and the Yalu River to the southeast.
 
Jilin is an offshore province with borderline of 1438.7 kilometers in total, of which China-DPRK borderline is 1206 kilometers and China-Russia borderline is 232.7 kilometers. The nearest part of Hunchun city that is the Jilin’s easternmost end, is 15 kilometers away from the Japan Sea and only 4 kilometers away from the Wave Shetland Bay of Russia.
 
Topography
 
The topographic features vary significantly in Jilin Province. The terrain slides from southeast to northwest, with an obvious feature that the southeast is high and the northwest is low. Dahei Mountain in the middle divides Jilin province into two parts: the mountain area in the east and the mid-west plain in the west. The eastern mountain area is divided into middle and low mountain area of Changbai Mountain as well as low mountain and hill area. The mid-west plain is divided into central terrace plain, west meadow, lake, wetland and sand area. Topographic types are mainly composed of volcanic landform, erosion landform, alluvial proluvial plain and alluvial plain. Main mountain ranges include Dahei Mountain, Zhangguangcai Ridge, Jilin Hada Mountain, Laoling Mountain and Mudanling Mountain and others. Main plain includes Songnen Plain and Liaohe Plain. Hill area accounts for 36% of overall territorial area, plain for 30%, terrain area and others for 28.2% and the rest is hill.
 
Climate
 
Jilin Province is located in the mid-latitude zone of northern hemisphere and east of the Eurasian continent. It is a warm temperate continental monsoon climate, characterized by four seasons, with hot rainy season. In Jilin province, spring is dry and windy, summer is warm and rainy, autumn is cool and pleasant and the winter is cold and long. The climate transition is from moisture to semi-moisture and semi-drought from southeast to northwest. There are obvious seasonal changes and regional differences in temperature, rainfall, heat, wind and other meteorological disasters in the province. Average annual temperature is 2 to 6 degrees, characterized by relatively lower in landforms and higher in plains. Annual average temperature is below minus eleven degree in winter. Annual average temperature in plains is above 23 degrees in summer. The annual temperature range is from 35 to 42 degrees, and diurnal range is 10 to 14 degrees. Annual frost free period is 100 to 160 days generally. The annual sunshine hits 2,259 to 3,016 hours over many years. Annual rainfall is 550 to 910 mm, most of which takes place in the eastern part and 80% in summer because of more seasonal and regional differences. Sunshine, heat and water can meet all needs of the growth of crops in normal years.
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